Glossary


Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

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A

algorithm

problem-solving strategy characterized by a specific set of instructions


analytical intelligence

aligned with academic problem solving and computations


anchoring bias

faulty heuristic in which you fixate on a single aspect of a problem to find a solution


artificial concept

concept that is defined by a very specific set of characteristics


availability heuristic

faulty heuristic in which you make a decision based on information readily available to you


C

cognition

thinking, including perception, learning, problem solving, judgment, and memory


cognitive psychology

field of psychology dedicated to studying every aspect of how people think


cognitive script

set of behaviors that are performed the same way each time; also referred to as an event schema


concept

category or grouping of linguistic information, objects, ideas, or life experiences


confirmation bias

faulty heuristic in which you focus on information that confirms your beliefs


convergent thinking

providing correct or established answers to problems


creative intelligence

ability to produce new products, ideas, or inventing a new, novel solution to a problem


creativity

ability to generate, create, or discover new ideas, solutions, and possibilities


crystallized intelligence

characterized by acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it


cultural intelligence

ability with which people can understand and relate to those in another culture


D

divergent thinking

ability to think “outside the box” to arrive at novel solutions to a problem


dysgraphia

learning disability that causes extreme difficulty in writing legibly


dyslexia

common learning disability in which letters are not processed properly by the brain


E

emotional intelligence

ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others


event schema

set of behaviors that are performed the same way each time; also referred to as a cognitive script


F

fluid intelligence

ability to see complex relationships and solve problems


Flynn effect

observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation


functional fixedness

inability to see an object as useful for any other use other than the one for which it was intended


G

grammar

set of rules that are used to convey meaning through the use of a lexicon


H

heuristic

mental shortcut that saves time when solving a problem


hindsight bias

belief that the event just experienced was predictable, even though it really wasn’t


I

intelligence quotient

(also, IQ) score on a test designed to measure intelligence


L

language

communication system that involves using words to transmit information from one individual to another


lexicon

the words of a given language


M

mental set

continually using an old solution to a problem without results


morpheme

smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning


Multiple Intelligences Theory

Gardner’s theory that each person possesses at least eight types of intelligence


N

natural concept

mental groupings that are created “naturally” through your experiences


norming

administering a test to a large population so data can be collected to reference the normal scores for a population and its groups


O

overgeneralization

extension of a rule that exists in a given language to an exception to the rule


P

phoneme

basic sound unit of a given language


practical intelligence

aka “street smarts”


problem-solving strategy

method for solving problems


prototype

best representation of a concept


R

range of reaction

each person’s response to the environment is unique based on his or her genetic make-up


representative bias

faulty heuristic in which you stereotype someone or something without a valid basis for your judgment


representative sample

subset of the population that accurately represents the general population


role schema

set of expectations that define the behaviors of a person occupying a particular role


S

schema

(plural = schemata) mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts


semantics

process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words


standard deviation

measure of variability that describes the difference between a set of scores and their mean


standardization

method of testing in which administration, scoring, and interpretation of results are consistent


syntax

manner by which words are organized into sentences


T

trial and error

problem-solving strategy in which multiple solutions are attempted until the correct one is found


triarchic theory of intelligence

Sternberg’s theory of intelligence; three facets of intelligence: practical, creative, and analytical



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