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problem-solving strategy characterized by a specific set of instructions

analytical intelligence

aligned with academic problem solving and computations

anchoring bias

faulty heuristic in which you fixate on a single aspect of a problem to find a solution

artificial concept

concept that is defined by a very specific set of characteristics

availability heuristic

faulty heuristic in which you make a decision based on information readily available to you



thinking, including perception, learning, problem solving, judgment, and memory

cognitive psychology

field of psychology dedicated to studying every aspect of how people think

cognitive script

set of behaviors that are performed the same way each time; also referred to as an event schema


category or grouping of linguistic information, objects, ideas, or life experiences

confirmation bias

faulty heuristic in which you focus on information that confirms your beliefs

convergent thinking

providing correct or established answers to problems

creative intelligence

ability to produce new products, ideas, or inventing a new, novel solution to a problem


ability to generate, create, or discover new ideas, solutions, and possibilities

crystallized intelligence

characterized by acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it

cultural intelligence

ability with which people can understand and relate to those in another culture


divergent thinking

ability to think “outside the box” to arrive at novel solutions to a problem


learning disability that causes extreme difficulty in writing legibly


common learning disability in which letters are not processed properly by the brain


emotional intelligence

ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others

event schema

set of behaviors that are performed the same way each time; also referred to as a cognitive script


fluid intelligence

ability to see complex relationships and solve problems

Flynn effect

observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation

functional fixedness

inability to see an object as useful for any other use other than the one for which it was intended



set of rules that are used to convey meaning through the use of a lexicon



mental shortcut that saves time when solving a problem

hindsight bias

belief that the event just experienced was predictable, even though it really wasn’t


intelligence quotient

(also, IQ) score on a test designed to measure intelligence



communication system that involves using words to transmit information from one individual to another


the words of a given language


mental set

continually using an old solution to a problem without results


smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning

Multiple Intelligences Theory

Gardner’s theory that each person possesses at least eight types of intelligence


natural concept

mental groupings that are created “naturally” through your experiences


administering a test to a large population so data can be collected to reference the normal scores for a population and its groups



extension of a rule that exists in a given language to an exception to the rule



basic sound unit of a given language

practical intelligence

aka “street smarts”

problem-solving strategy

method for solving problems


best representation of a concept


range of reaction

each person’s response to the environment is unique based on his or her genetic make-up

representative bias

faulty heuristic in which you stereotype someone or something without a valid basis for your judgment

representative sample

subset of the population that accurately represents the general population

role schema

set of expectations that define the behaviors of a person occupying a particular role



(plural = schemata) mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts


process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words

standard deviation

measure of variability that describes the difference between a set of scores and their mean


method of testing in which administration, scoring, and interpretation of results are consistent


manner by which words are organized into sentences


trial and error

problem-solving strategy in which multiple solutions are attempted until the correct one is found

triarchic theory of intelligence

Sternberg’s theory of intelligence; three facets of intelligence: practical, creative, and analytical

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