Day 04 : Post Your Comments on Glossary

For successful completion of this Activity, student must post comments to at least 2 - 5 glossary keywords.

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454 sequencing (pyrosequencing)

454 sequencing (pyrosequencing) a next generation sequencing technique in which fragmented DNA has DNA adapters attached, is amplified by PCR, is attached to a bead, and then placed into a well with sequencing reagents, and the flash of light produced by the release of pyrophosphate on addition of a nucleotide is monitored


5’ cap

5’ cap methylguanosine nucleotide added to 5’ end of a eukaryotic primary transcript


70S ribosome

70S ribosome a ribosome composed of 50S and 30S subunits


80S ribosome

80S ribosome cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosome composed of 60S and 40S subunits


A (aminoacyl) site

A (aminoacyl) site functional site of an intact ribosome that binds incoming charged aminoacyl tRNAs

A-B exotoxin

A-B exotoxin class of exotoxin that contains A subunits, which enter the cell and disrupt cellular activities, and B subunits, which bind to host cell receptors

ABO blood group system

ABO blood group system set of glycoprotein antigens found on the surface of red blood cells; the presence or absence of specific carbohydrates determining blood type


absorbance when a molecule captures energy from a photon and vibrates or stretches, using the energy

Acanthamoeba keratitis

Acanthamoeba keratitis a condition characterized by damage to the cornea and possible blindness caused by parasitic infection of the protozoan Acanthamoeba


acellular not made of cells

acid-fast stain

acid-fast stain a stain that differentiates cells that have waxy mycolic acids in their gram-positive cell walls

acidic dye

acidic dye a chromophore with a negative charge that attaches to positively charged structures


acidophile organism that grows optimally at a pH near 3.0


acne a skin disease in which hair follicles or pores become clogged, leading to the formation of comedones and infected lesions

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease caused by HIV, characterized by opportunistic infections and rare cancers


actin a protein that polymerizes to form microfilaments

activation energy

activation energy energy needed to form or break chemical bonds and convert a reactant or reactants to a product or products


activator protein that increases the transcription of a gene in response to an external stimulus

active carrier

active carrier an infected individual who can transmit the pathogen to others regardless of whether symptoms are currently present

active immunity

active immunity stimulation of one’s own adaptive immune responses

active site

active site location within an enzyme where substrate(s) bind

acute disease

acute disease disease of a relatively short duration that develops and progresses in a predictable pattern

acute glomerulonephritis

acute glomerulonephritis inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney, probably resulting from deposition of immune complexes and an autoimmune response caused by self-antigen mimicry by a pathogen

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis a severe form of gingivitis, also called trench mouth

acute otitis media

acute otitis media inflammatory disease of the middle ear resulting from a microbial infection

acute rheumatic fever

acute rheumatic fever sequela of streptococcal pharyngitis; comorbidities include arthritis and carditis

acute-phase proteins

acute-phase proteins antimicrobial molecules produced by liver cells in response to pathogen-induced stimulation events


acyclovir antiviral guanosine analog; inhibits DNA replication

adaptive immunity

adaptive immunity third-line defense characterized by specificity and memory

Addison disease

Addison disease autoimmune disease affecting adrenal gland function


adenine purine nitrogenous base found in nucleotides

adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

adenosine diphosphate (ADP) nucleotide derivative and relative of ATP containing only one high-energy phosphate bond

adenosine monophosphate (AMP)

adenosine monophosphate (AMP) adenine molecule bonded to a ribose molecule and to a single phosphate group, having no high-energy phosphate bonds

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy currency of the cell; a nucleotide derivative that safely stores chemical energy in its two high-energy phosphate bonds


adhesins molecules on the surface of pathogens that promote colonization of host tissue


adhesion the capability of microbes to attach to host cells

aerobic respiration

aerobic respiration use of an oxygen molecule as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport system

aerotolerant anaerobe

aerotolerant anaerobe organism that does not use oxygen but tolerates its presence


affinity measure of how tightly an antibody-binding site binds to its epitope

affinity maturation

affinity maturation function of the immune system by which B cells, upon re-exposure to antigen, are selected to produce higher affinity antibodies


aflatoxin chemical produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus; both a toxin and the most potent known natural carcinogen

African sleeping sickness

African sleeping sickness see human African trypanosomiasis

agarose gel electrophoresis

agarose gel electrophoresis a method for separating populations of DNA molecules of varying sizes by differential migration rates caused by a voltage gradient through a horizontal gel matrix


agglutination binding of different pathogen cells by Fab regions of the same antibody to aggregate and enhance elimination from body


agranulocytes leukocytes that lack granules in the cytoplasm


alarmone small intracellular derivative of a nucleotide that signals a global bacterial response (i.e., activating a regulon of operons) to an environmental stress


albendazole antihelminthic drug of the benzimidazole class that binds to helminthic β-tubulin, preventing microtubule formation


algae (singular: alga) any of various unicellular and multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms; distinguished from plants by their lack of vascular tissues and organs


alkaliphile organism that grows optimally at pH above 9.0

alkylating agent

alkylating agent type of strong disinfecting chemical that acts by replacing a hydrogen atom within a molecule with an alkyl group, thereby inactivating enzymes and nucleic acids


allergen antigen capable of inducing type I hypersensitivity reaction


allergy hypersensitivity response to an allergen


allograft transplanted tissue from an individual of the same species that is genetically different from the recipient

allosteric activator

allosteric activator molecule that binds to an enzyme’s allosteric site, increasing the affinity of the enzyme’s active site for the substrate(s)

allosteric site

allosteric site location within an enzyme, other than the active site, to which molecules can bind, regulating enzyme activity


allylamines class of antifungal drugs that inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis at an early point in the pathway


Alphaproteobacteria class of Proteobacteria that are all oligotrophs


alveoli cul-de-sacs or small air pockets within the lung that facilitate gas exchange


amantadine antiviral drug that targets the influenza virus by preventing viral escape from endosomes upon host cell uptake, thus preventing viral RNA release and subsequent viral replication


amensalism type of symbiosis in which one population harms the other but remains unaffected itself

Ames test

Ames test method that uses auxotrophic bacteria to detect mutations resulting from exposure to potentially mutagenic chemical compounds

amino acid

amino acid a molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group, and an amine group bonded to the same carbon. The group bonded to the carbon varies and is represented by an R in the structural formula

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme that binds to a tRNA molecule and catalyzes the addition of the correct amino acid to the tRNA


aminoglycosides protein synthesis inhibitors that bind to the 30S subunit and interfere with the ribosome’s proofreading ability, leading to the generation of faulty proteins that insert into and disrupt the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane


amoebiasis intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica

amoebic dysentery

amoebic dysentery severe form of intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica, characterized by severe diarrhea with blood and mucus


amphipathic a molecule containing both polar and nonpolar parts


amphitrichous having two flagella or tufts of multiple flagella, with one flagellum or tuft located at each end of the bacterial cell

amphotericin B

amphotericin B antifungal drug of the polyene class that is used to treat several systemic fungal infections


amplitude the height of a wave


anabolism chemical reactions that convert simpler molecules into more complex ones

anaerobe chamber

anaerobe chamber closed compartment used to handle and grow obligate anaerobic cultures

anaerobe jar

anaerobe jar container devoid of oxygen used to grow obligate anaerobes

anaerobic respiration

anaerobic respiration use of a non-oxygen inorganic molecule, like CO2, nitrate, nitrite, oxidized iron, or sulfate, as the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport system

analytical epidemiology

analytical epidemiology study of disease outbreaks to establish associations between an agent and a disease state through observational studies comparing groups of individuals

anaphylactic shock

anaphylactic shock another term for anaphylaxis


anaphylaxis systemic and potentially life-threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction


anergy peripheral tolerance mechanism that prevents self-reactive T cells from being activated by self-antigens through lack of co-stimulation


annealing formation of hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide base pairs of two single-stranded complementary nucleic acid sequences

anoxygenic photosynthesis

anoxygenic photosynthesis type of photosynthesis found in many photosynthetic bacteria, including the purple and green bacteria, where an electron donor other than H2O is used to replace an electron lost by a reaction center pigment, resulting no oxygen production


anthrax a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis; the cutaneous form causes a skin lesion to develop; gastrointestinal and inhalation anthrax have high mortality rates


antibiogram compilation of the antimicrobial susceptibilities recorded for local bacterial strains, which is useful for monitoring local trends in antimicrobial resistance and aiding the prescription of appropriate empiric antibacterial therapy

antibiotic-associated diarrhea

antibiotic-associated diarrhea diarrhea that develops after antibiotic treatment as a result of disruption to the normal microbiota; C. difficile is a particularly serious example


antibody Y-shaped glycoprotein molecule produced by B cells that binds to specific epitopes on an antigen

antibody screen

antibody screen test to make sure that a potential blood recipient has not produced antibodies to antigens other than the ABO and Rh antigens

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) mechanism by which large pathogens are marked for destruction by specific antibodies and then killed by secretion of cytotoxins by natural killer cells, macrophages, or eosinophils


anticodon three-nucleotide sequence of a mature tRNA that interacts with an mRNA codon through complementary base pairing

antigen (also, immunogen)

antigen (also, immunogen) a molecule that stimulates an adaptive immune response

antigen-presenting cells (APC)

antigen-presenting cells (APC) macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells that process and present foreign pathogen antigens for the purpose of activating T cells and adaptive immune defenses


antigenic able to stimulate an adaptive immune response

antigenic drift

antigenic drift form of slight antigenic variation that occurs because of point mutations in the genes that encode surface proteins

antigenic shift

antigenic shift form of major antigenic variation that occurs because of gene reassortment

antigenic variation

antigenic variation changing of surface antigens (carbohydrates or proteins) such that they are no longer recognized by the host’s immune system


antimetabolites compounds that are competitive inhibitors for bacterial metabolic enzymes

antimicrobial drugs

antimicrobial drugs chemical compounds, including naturally produced drugs, semisynthetic derivatives, and synthetic compounds, that target specific microbial structures and enzymes, killing specific microbes or inhibiting their growth

antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)

antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) class of nonspecific, cell-derived chemical mediators with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties


antiparallel two strands of DNA helix oriented in opposite directions; one strand is oriented in the 5’ to 3’ direction, while the other is oriented in the 3’ to 5’ direction

antisense RNA

antisense RNA small noncoding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression by binding to mRNA transcripts via complementary base pairing

antisense strand

antisense strand transcription template strand of DNA; the strand that is transcribed for gene expression


antisepsis protocol that removes potential pathogens from living tissue

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