Glossary


Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

Page:  1  2  (Next)
  ALL

A

adipocytes

lipid storage cells


adipose tissue

specialized areolar tissue rich in stored fat


anchoring junction

mechanically attaches adjacent cells to each other or to the basement membrane


apical

that part of a cell or tissue which, in general, faces an open space


apocrine secretion

release of a substance along with the apical portion of the cell


apoptosis

programmed cell death


areolar tissue

(also, loose connective tissue) a type of connective tissue proper that shows little specialization with cells dispersed in the matrix


astrocyte

star-shaped cell in the central nervous system that regulates ions and uptake and/or breakdown of some neurotransmitters and contributes to the formation of the blood-brain barrier


atrophy

loss of mass and function


B

basal lamina

thin extracellular layer that lies underneath epithelial cells and separates them from other tissues


basement membrane

in epithelial tissue, a thin layer of fibrous material that anchors the epithelial tissue to the underlying connective tissue; made up of the basal lamina and reticular lamina


C

cardiac muscle

heart muscle, under involuntary control, composed of striated cells that attach to form fibers, each cell contains a single nucleus, contracts autonomously


cell junction

point of cell-to-cell contact that connects one cell to another in a tissue


chondrocytes

cells of the cartilage


clotting

also called coagulation; complex process by which blood components form a plug to stop bleeding


collagen fiber

flexible fibrous proteins that give connective tissue tensile strength


connective tissue

type of tissue that serves to hold in place, connect, and integrate the body’s organs and systems


connective tissue membrane

connective tissue that encapsulates organs and lines movable joints


connective tissue proper

connective tissue containing a viscous matrix, fibers, and cells.


cutaneous membrane

skin; epithelial tissue made up of a stratified squamous epithelial cells that cover the outside of the body


D

dense connective tissue

connective tissue proper that contains many fibers that provide both elasticity and protection


E

ectoderm

outermost embryonic germ layer from which the epidermis and the nervous tissue derive


elastic cartilage

type of cartilage, with elastin as the major protein, characterized by rigid support as well as elasticity


elastic fiber

fibrous protein within connective tissue that contains a high percentage of the protein elastin that allows the fibers to stretch and return to original size


endocrine gland

groups of cells that release chemical signals into the intercellular fluid to be picked up and transported to their target organs by blood


endoderm

innermost embryonic germ layer from which most of the digestive system and lower respiratory system derive


endothelium

tissue that lines vessels of the lymphatic and cardiovascular system, made up of a simple squamous epithelium


epithelial membrane

epithelium attached to a layer of connective tissue


epithelial tissue

type of tissue that serves primarily as a covering or lining of body parts, protecting the body; it also functions in absorption, transport, and secretion


exocrine gland

group of epithelial cells that secrete substances through ducts that open to the skin or to internal body surfaces that lead to the exterior of the body


F

fibroblast

most abundant cell type in connective tissue, secretes protein fibers and matrix into the extracellular space


fibrocartilage

tough form of cartilage, made of thick bundles of collagen fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate ground substance


fibrocyte

less active form of fibroblast


fluid connective tissue

specialized cells that circulate in a watery fluid containing salts, nutrients, and dissolved proteins


G

gap junction

allows cytoplasmic communications to occur between cells


goblet cell

unicellular gland found in columnar epithelium that secretes mucous


ground substance

fluid or semi-fluid portion of the matrix


H

histamine

chemical compound released by mast cells in response to injury that causes vasodilation and endothelium permeability


histology

microscopic study of tissue architecture, organization, and function


holocrine secretion

release of a substance caused by the rupture of a gland cell, which becomes part of the secretion


hyaline cartilage

most common type of cartilage, smooth and made of short collagen fibers embedded in a chondroitin sulfate ground substance


I

inflammation

response of tissue to injury


L

lacunae

(singular = lacuna) small spaces in bone or cartilage tissue that cells occupy


lamina propria

areolar connective tissue underlying a mucous membrane


loose connective tissue

(also, areolar tissue) type of connective tissue proper that shows little specialization with cells dispersed in the matrix


M

matrix

extracellular material which is produced by the cells embedded in it, containing ground substance and fibers


merocrine secretion

release of a substance from a gland via exocytosis


mesenchymal cell

adult stem cell from which most connective tissue cells are derived


mesenchyme

embryonic tissue from which connective tissue cells derive


mesoderm

middle embryonic germ layer from which connective tissue, muscle tissue, and some epithelial tissue derive



Page:  1  2  (Next)
  ALL